Last updated on: 11/9/2018 2:33:32 PM PST | Author: ProCon.org

Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by ProCon.org staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
Footnotes:

  1. Pan Belluck, “Complex Science at Issue in Politics of Fetal Pain,” nytimes.com, Sep. 16, 2013
  2. Pew Research, “Abortion Viewed in Moral Terms: Fewer See Stem Cell Research and IVF as Moral Issues,” pewforum.org, Aug. 15, 2013
  3. E.G. Raymond and D.A. Grimes, “The Comparative Safety of Legal Induced Abortion and Childbirth in the United States,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feb. 2012
  4. Rachel K. Jones, Mia R. S. Zolna, et al., “Abortion in the United States: Incidence and Access to Services, 2005,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Mar. 4, 2008
  5. Terry Eastland, “The Forgotten Option,” The Weekly Standard, Jan. 29, 2003
  6. Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice, “Member Organizations,” rcrc.org (accessed Apr. 5, 2010)
  7. Willard Cates, Jr. et. al, “The Public Health Impact of Legal Abortion: 30 Years Later,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, guttmacher.org, Jan.-Feb. 2003
  8. Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania et al. v. Casey, Governor of Pennsylvania, et al., law.cornell.edu, June 29, 1992
  9. Amy Harmon, “Prenatal Test Puts Down Syndrome in Hard Focus,” nytimes.com, May 9, 2007
  10. Stuart W. G. Derbyshire, “Can Fetuses Feel Pain?,” British Medical Journal, Apr. 29, 2006
  11. Elisabeth Ahman and Iqbal Shah, World Health Organization, Unsafe Abortion: Global and Regional Estimates of the Incidence of Unsafe Abortion and Associated Mortality in 2000, Fourth Edition, 2004
  12. Beth Reinhard, “Should Mothers Be Forced to Bear Disabled Children against Their Will?,” nationaljournal.com, Oct. 10, 2013
  13. Guttmacher Institute, “Induced Abortion in the United States,” guttmacher.org, July 2014
  14. Peter Frank, et al., “The Effect of Induced Abortion on Subsequent Fertility,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth, June 1993
  15. Eric Pace, “Dr. Jerome Lejeune Dies at 67; Found Cause of Down Syndrome,” nytimes.com, Apr. 12, 1994
  16. Mark Mittelberg, The Questions Christians Hope No One Will Ask (with Answers), 2010
  17. American Medical Association (AMA), “H-5.995 Abortion,” ama-assn.org (accessed Mar. 12, 2010)
  18. Ronald Bailey, “Do Fetuses Feel Pain?,” reason.com, July 12, 2013
  19. Lawrence B. Finer, Lori F. Frohwirth, et al., “Reasons US Women Have Abortions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Sep. 2005
  20. John J. Donohue, and Steven D. Levitt, “The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, May 2001 (Despite admitting to an error in one of this study’s tables, Levitt has stated that “the story we put forth in the paper is not materially changed by the coding error.” See Steven D. Levitt, “Everything in Freakonomics Is Wrong!,” freakonomics.com, Nov. 28, 2005)
  21. Paul R. Ehrlich, The Population Bomb, 1968
  22. Planned Parenthood of New Jersey, “Anti-Choice Claims about Abortion and Breast Cancer,” plannedparenthoodnj.org (accessed Apr. 1, 2010)
  23. The Holy Bible: King James Version (accessed Apr. 1, 2010)
  24. Annie Murphy Paul, “The First Ache,” New York Times Magazine, Feb. 10, 2008
  25. Henry E. Sigerist, The Hippocratic Oath: Text, Translation, and Interpretation, 1996
  26. David. C. Reardon, et al., “Deaths Associated with Pregnancy Outcome: A Record Linkage Study of Low Income Women,” Southern Medical Journal, Aug. 2002.
  27. Priscilla Coleman, and Eileen S. Nelson, EdD, “The Quality of Abortion Decisions and College Students’ Reports of Post-Abortion Emotional Sequelae and Abortion Attitudes,” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Apr. 1998
  28. Terry Eastland, “The Forgotten Option,” The Weekly Standard, Jan. 29, 2003
  29. “Landmark Study Shows Vast Majority of Americans Support Adoption,” adoption.com (accessed Apr. 1, 2010)
  30. James M.M. Francis, Adults as Children: Images of Childhood in the Ancient World and the New Testament, 2006
  31. Franklin Foer, “Fetal Viability,” slate.com, May 25, 1997
  32. James Davison Hunter, Before the Shooting Begins: Searching for Democracy in America’s Culture War, 1994
  33. Rick Lowery, “Abortion: What the Bible Says (and Doesn’t Say),” huffingtonpost.com, Sep. 14, 2012
  34. Yuelian Sun, et al., “Induced Abortion and Risk of Subsequent Miscarriage,” International Journal of Epidemiology, June 2003
  35. Jose Russo and Irma Russo, “Susceptibility of the Mammary Gland to Carcinogenesis. Pregnancy Interruption as a Risk Factor in Tumor Incidence,” The American Journal of Pathology, Aug. 1980
  36. Randy Hultgren, “Americans Should Not Have to Pay for Abortions through Obamacare,” redalertpolitics.com, Jan. 21, 2014
  37. Christopher L. Foote and Christopher F. Goetz, “The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime: Comment,” Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Jan. 31, 2008
  38. Megan McArdle, “Department of Awful Statistics,” theatlantic.com, Oct. 16, 2007
  39. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, “Induced Abortion,” acog.org, Nov. 2008
  40. Karen Pazol, Sonya B. Gambl, et al., “Abortion Surveillance – United States, 2006,” CDC – Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Nov. 27, 2009
  41. Suzanne M. Alford, “Is Self-Abortion a Fundamental Right?,” Duke Law Journal, Mar. 2003
  42. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, “Induced Abortion,” acog.org, Nov. 2008
  43. Lawrence B. Finer and Stanley K. Henshaw, “Abortion Incidence and Services in the United States in 2000,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Jan/Feb. 2003
  44. Willy Pedersen, “Abortion and Depression: A Population-based Longitudinal Study of Young Women,” Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, June 2008
  45. Mika Gissler et al., “Suicides after Pregnancy in Finland, 1987–94: Register Linkage Study,” BMJ (formerly the British Medical Journal), Dec. 7, 1996
  46. Wendy Koch, “USA Faces Critical Adoption Shortage,” usatoday.com, Jan. 10, 2013
  47. Monica Davey, “Nebraska Law Sets Limits on Abortion,” New York Times, Apr. 13, 2010
  48. James C. McKinley, Jr., “Strict Abortion Measures Enacted in Oklahoma,” New York Times, Apr. 27, 2010
  49. Roe v. Wade,US Supreme Court, lp.findlaw.com, Jan. 22, 1973
  50. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Unintended Pregnancy Prevention: Home, cdc.gov (accessed Oct. 20, 2010)
  51. The US Declaration of Independence, uscode.house.gov, July 4, 1776
  52. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Abortion Surveillance United States, 2006, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), cdc.gov, Nov. 27, 2009
  53. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Who Adopts? Characteristics of Women and Men Who Have Adopted Children, NCHS Data Brief, dc.gov, Jan. 2009
  54. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as Amended, ada.gov, Sep. 25, 2008
  55. Democratic National Committee, “Moving America Forward: 2012 Democratic National Platform, democrats.org, 2012
  56. Republican National Committee, “We Believe in America: 2012 Republican Platform” (2.5 MB) , gop.com, 2012
  57. Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey,US Supreme Court, law.cornell.edu, June 29, 1992
  58. Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003, gpo.gov, Nov. 5, 2003
  59. Gonzales, Attorney General v. Carhart et al./Gonzales, Attorney General v. Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., et al., US Supreme Court, lp.findlaw.com, Apr. 18, 2007
  60. Policy Statement of the United States of America at the United Nations International Conference on Population (Second Session), populationaction.org, Aug. 16-13, 1984
  61. Barack Obama, JD, “Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, gpo.gov, Jan. 23, 2009
  62. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2.2 MB) , gpo.gov, Mar. 23, 2010
  63. Barack Obama, JD, “Executive Order: Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, whitehouse.gov, Mar. 24, 2010
  64. Nathan Koppel, “Arizona Criminalizes Certain Abortions,” wsj.com, Mar. 30, 2011
  65. Rachel K. Jones and Kathryn Kooistra, “Abortion Incidence and Access to Services in the United States, 2008,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Mar. 2011
  66. National Down Syndrome Society, “Myths & Truths,” ndss.org (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
  67. Susan Donaldson James, “Down Syndrome Births Are Down in U.S.,” abcnews.go.com, Nov. 2, 2009
  68. Guttmacher Institute, “Are You in the Know?: Abortion: Characteristics of U.S. Women Having Abortions,” guttmacher.org (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
  69. Anne Nordal Broen et al., “The Course of Mental Health after Miscarriage and Induced Abortion: A Longitudinal, Five-Year Follow-up Study,” BMC (BioMed Central) Medicine, Dec. 12, 2005
  70. Aaron Sharockman, “Rep. Richard Corcoran Says 90 Percent of Prenatal Down Syndrome Cases Result in Abortion,” politifact.com, Apr. 28, 2011
  71. A.S. Bhadoria et al., Reproductive Factors and Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Tertiary Care Hospital of North India,” Indian Journal of Cancer, Oct.-Dec. 2013
  72. Yubei Huang et al., “A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Induced Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk Among Chinese Females,” Cancer Causes & Control, Feb. 2014
  73. Annalee Newitz, “What Happens to Women Denied Abortions? This Is the First Scientific Study to Find Out,” io9.com, Nov. 13, 2012
  74. Guttmacher Institute, “In Brief: Fact Sheet: Facts on Induced Abortion Worldwide,” guttmacher.org, Jan. 2012
  75. Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, “Family Planning Program,” colorado.gov (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
  76. Child Welfare Information Gateway, US Department of Health and Human Services, “Persons Seeking to Adopt,” childwelfare.gov, Feb. 2011
  77. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, “Summary of Vital Statistics 2012: The City of New York: Pregnancy Outcomes,” nyc.gov, Feb. 2014
  78. Daniel Martin, “Abortion Should Not Be Used as a Contraceptive, Says Lord Steel, Father of 1967 Act That Legalised the Practice,” dailymail.co.uk, June 18, 2013
  79. Gallup, “Abortion,” gallup.com (accessed Feb. 10, 2015)
  80. Lydia Saad, “Americans Misjudge U.S. Abortion Views,” gallup.com, May 15, 2013
  81. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, “Frequently Asked Questions: FAQ043: Special Procedures: Induced Abortion,” acog.org, Oct. 2011
  82. Planned Parenthood Federation of America, “In-Clinic Abortion Procedures,” plannedparenthood.org (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
  83. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2010,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), Nov. 29, 2013
  84. Meghan Ashford-Grooms, “Rick Perry Says There Have Been 50 Million Abortions Since Roe,” politifact.com, Feb. 1, 2011
  85. Sandhya Somashekhar, “Study: Abortion Rate at Lowest Point Since 1973,” washingtonpost.com, Feb. 2, 2014
  86. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), “Historical Attitudes to Abortion,” bbc.co.uk (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
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  90. Chicago Tribune, “Timeline of Abortion Laws and Events,” chicagotribune.com, 2014
  91. Kate Manning, “Leeches, Lye and Spanish Fly,” nytimes.com, Jan. 21, 2013
  92. Dorothy E. McBride, Abortion in the United States: A Reference Handbook, 2008
  93. Justin Dyer, “Fictional Abortion History,” nationalreview.com, Dec. 24, 2012
  94. Pew Research Center, “Roe v. Wade at 40: Most Oppose Overturning Abortion Decision,” pewforum.org, Jan. 16, 2013
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  98. LifeSiteNews.com, “All Statements from Pro Life Groups Condemning Tiller Murder,” lifesitenews.com, June 1, 2009
  99. National Abortion Federation, “NAF Violence and Disruption Statistics: Incidence of Violence & Disruption against Abortion Providers in the US & Canada,” prochoice.org (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
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  101. Guttmacher Institute, “State Policies in Brief: State Policies on Later Abortions,” guttmacher.org, Apr. 1, 2014
  102. Liz Halloran and Julie Rovner, “High Court’s Pass on ‘Fetal Pain’ Abortion Case Unlikely to Cool Debate,” npr.org, Jan. 13, 2014
  103. Rachel Benson Gold and Elizabeth Nash, “Troubling Trend: More States Hostile to Abortion Rights as Middle Ground Shrinks,” Guttmacher Policy Review, Winter 2012
  104. Guttmacher Institute, “States Enact Record Number of Abortion Restrictions in First Half of 2011,” guttmacher.org, July 13, 2011
  105. Elizabeth Nash et al., “Laws Affecting Reproductive Health and Rights: 2013 State Policy Review,” guttmacher.org (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
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  108. Janet Benshoof, “Planned Parenthood v Casey: The Impact of the New Undue Burden Standard on Reproductive Health Care,” JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association), May 5, 1993
  109. NBC News, “Planned Parenthood v. Casey,” archives.nbclearn.com, June 29, 1992
  110. Michael Muskal, “Pact Reached to Keep North Dakota’s Only Abortion Clinic Open,” latimes.com, Mar. 14, 2014
  111. Irin Carmon, “Appeals Court Upholds Law That Closed Texas Abortion Clinics,” msnbc.com, Mar. 28, 2014
  112. Manny Fernandez, “In Texas, a Senator’s Stand Catches the Spotlight,” nytimes.com, June 26, 2013
  113. Jeffrey Toobin, “The People’s Choice,” newyorker.com, Jan. 28, 2013
  114. Advancing New Standards in Reproductive Health (ANSIRH), University of California at San Francisco, “Turnaway Study,” ansirh.org (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)
  115. Penny Young Nance, “Celebrate Life, Embrace Grace…End Abortion,” foxnews.com, Jan. 23, 2012
  116. Sarah Terzo, “‘Pro-Choice'” Blog Supports Abortion as Method of Birth Control,” liveactionnews.org, Mar. 31, 2013
  117. Brinda Adhikari, “Tim Tebow Super Bowl Ad: Anti-Abortion Commercial to Air,” abcnews.go.com, Jan. 26, 2010
  118. Catholic World News, “Celine Dion Says Priest Told Mom Not to Abort Her,” ewtn.com, Jan. 10, 2001
  119. Courtney Hazlett, “Justin Bieber’s Mom Tells Why She Chose Not to Abort at 17,” today.com, Sep. 14, 2012
  120. Edna Gundersen, “Lifetime Special ‘Dear Mom, Love Cher’ Turns Back Time,” usatoday.com, May 6, 2013
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