Last updated on: 9/18/2019 | Author:

Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):

  1. Pan Belluck, “Complex Science at Issue in Politics of Fetal Pain,”, Sep. 16, 2013
  2. Pew Research, “Abortion Viewed in Moral Terms: Fewer See Stem Cell Research and IVF as Moral Issues,”, Aug. 15, 2013
  3. E.G. Raymond and D.A. Grimes, “The Comparative Safety of Legal Induced Abortion and Childbirth in the United States,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feb. 2012
  4. Rachel K. Jones, Mia R. S. Zolna, et al., “Abortion in the United States: Incidence and Access to Services, 2005,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Mar. 4, 2008
  5. Terry Eastland, “The Forgotten Option,” The Weekly Standard, Jan. 29, 2003
  6. Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice, “Member Organizations,” (accessed Apr. 5, 2010)
  7. Willard Cates, Jr. et. al, “The Public Health Impact of Legal Abortion: 30 Years Later,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health,, Jan.-Feb. 2003
  8. Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania et al. v. Casey, Governor of Pennsylvania, et al.,, June 29, 1992
  9. Amy Harmon, “Prenatal Test Puts Down Syndrome in Hard Focus,”, May 9, 2007
  10. Stuart W. G. Derbyshire, “Can Fetuses Feel Pain?,” British Medical Journal, Apr. 29, 2006
  11. Elisabeth Ahman and Iqbal Shah, World Health Organization, Unsafe Abortion: Global and Regional Estimates of the Incidence of Unsafe Abortion and Associated Mortality in 2000, Fourth Edition, 2004
  12. Beth Reinhard, “Should Mothers Be Forced to Bear Disabled Children against Their Will?,”, Oct. 10, 2013
  13. Guttmacher Institute, “Induced Abortion in the United States,”, July 2014
  14. Peter Frank, et al., “The Effect of Induced Abortion on Subsequent Fertility,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth, June 1993
  15. Eric Pace, “Dr. Jerome Lejeune Dies at 67; Found Cause of Down Syndrome,”, Apr. 12, 1994
  16. Mark Mittelberg, The Questions Christians Hope No One Will Ask (with Answers), 2010
  17. American Medical Association (AMA), “H-5.995 Abortion,” (accessed Mar. 12, 2010)
  18. Ronald Bailey, “Do Fetuses Feel Pain?,”, July 12, 2013
  19. Lawrence B. Finer, Lori F. Frohwirth, et al., “Reasons US Women Have Abortions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Sep. 2005
  20. John J. Donohue, and Steven D. Levitt, “The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, May 2001 (Despite admitting to an error in one of this study’s tables, Levitt has stated that “the story we put forth in the paper is not materially changed by the coding error.” See Steven D. Levitt, “Everything in Freakonomics Is Wrong!,”, Nov. 28, 2005)
  21. Paul R. Ehrlich, The Population Bomb, 1968
  22. Planned Parenthood of New Jersey, “Anti-Choice Claims about Abortion and Breast Cancer,” (accessed Apr. 1, 2010)
  23. The Holy Bible: King James Version (accessed Apr. 1, 2010)
  24. Annie Murphy Paul, “The First Ache,” New York Times Magazine, Feb. 10, 2008
  25. Henry E. Sigerist, The Hippocratic Oath: Text, Translation, and Interpretation, 1996
  26. David. C. Reardon, et al., “Deaths Associated with Pregnancy Outcome: A Record Linkage Study of Low Income Women,” Southern Medical Journal, Aug. 2002.
  27. Priscilla Coleman, and Eileen S. Nelson, EdD, “The Quality of Abortion Decisions and College Students’ Reports of Post-Abortion Emotional Sequelae and Abortion Attitudes,” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Apr. 1998
  28. Terry Eastland, “The Forgotten Option,” The Weekly Standard, Jan. 29, 2003
  29. “Landmark Study Shows Vast Majority of Americans Support Adoption,” (accessed Apr. 1, 2010)
  30. James M.M. Francis, Adults as Children: Images of Childhood in the Ancient World and the New Testament, 2006
  31. Franklin Foer, “Fetal Viability,”, May 25, 1997
  32. James Davison Hunter, Before the Shooting Begins: Searching for Democracy in America’s Culture War, 1994
  33. Rick Lowery, “Abortion: What the Bible Says (and Doesn’t Say),”, Sep. 14, 2012
  34. Yuelian Sun, et al., “Induced Abortion and Risk of Subsequent Miscarriage,” International Journal of Epidemiology, June 2003
  35. Jose Russo and Irma Russo, “Susceptibility of the Mammary Gland to Carcinogenesis. Pregnancy Interruption as a Risk Factor in Tumor Incidence,” The American Journal of Pathology, Aug. 1980
  36. Randy Hultgren, “Americans Should Not Have to Pay for Abortions through Obamacare,”, Jan. 21, 2014
  37. Christopher L. Foote and Christopher F. Goetz, “The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime: Comment,” Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Jan. 31, 2008
  38. Megan McArdle, “Department of Awful Statistics,”, Oct. 16, 2007
  39. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, “Induced Abortion,”, Nov. 2008
  40. Karen Pazol, Sonya B. Gambl, et al., “Abortion Surveillance – United States, 2006,” CDC – Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Nov. 27, 2009
  41. Suzanne M. Alford, “Is Self-Abortion a Fundamental Right?,” Duke Law Journal, Mar. 2003
  42. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, “Induced Abortion,”, Nov. 2008
  43. Lawrence B. Finer and Stanley K. Henshaw, “Abortion Incidence and Services in the United States in 2000,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Jan/Feb. 2003
  44. Willy Pedersen, “Abortion and Depression: A Population-based Longitudinal Study of Young Women,” Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, June 2008
  45. Mika Gissler et al., “Suicides after Pregnancy in Finland, 1987–94: Register Linkage Study,” BMJ (formerly the British Medical Journal), Dec. 7, 1996
  46. Wendy Koch, “USA Faces Critical Adoption Shortage,”, Jan. 10, 2013
  47. Monica Davey, “Nebraska Law Sets Limits on Abortion,” New York Times, Apr. 13, 2010
  48. James C. McKinley, Jr., “Strict Abortion Measures Enacted in Oklahoma,” New York Times, Apr. 27, 2010
  49. Roe v. Wade ,US Supreme Court,, Jan. 22, 1973
  50. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Unintended Pregnancy Prevention: Home, (accessed Oct. 20, 2010)
  51. The US Declaration of Independence,, July 4, 1776
  52. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2006, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR),, Nov. 27, 2009
  53. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Who Adopts? Characteristics of Women and Men Who Have Adopted Children, NCHS Data Brief,, Jan. 2009
  54. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as Amended,, Sep. 25, 2008
  55. Democratic National Committee, “Moving America Forward: 2012 Democratic National Platform,”, 2012
  56. Republican National Committee, “We Believe in America: 2012 Republican Platform,”, 2012
  57. Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey,US Supreme Court,, June 29, 1992
  58. Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003,, Nov. 5, 2003
  59. Gonzales, Attorney General v. Carhart et al./Gonzales, Attorney General v. Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., et al., US Supreme Court,, Apr. 18, 2007
  60. “Policy Statement of the United States of America at the United Nations International Conference on Population (Second Session),, Aug. 16-13, 1984”
  61. Barack Obama, JD, “Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development,, Jan. 23, 2009
  62. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2.2 MB) ,, Mar. 23, 2010
  63. Barack Obama, JD, “Executive Order: Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act,, Mar. 24, 2010
  64. Nathan Koppel, “Arizona Criminalizes Certain Abortions,”, Mar. 30, 2011
  65. Rachel K. Jones and Kathryn Kooistra, “Abortion Incidence and Access to Services in the United States, 2008,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Mar. 2011
  66. National Down Syndrome Society, “Myths & Truths,” (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
  67. Susan Donaldson James, “Down Syndrome Births Are Down in U.S.,”, Nov. 2, 2009
  68. Guttmacher Institute, “Are You in the Know?: Abortion: Characteristics of U.S. Women Having Abortions,” (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
  69. Anne Nordal Broen et al., “The Course of Mental Health after Miscarriage and Induced Abortion: A Longitudinal, Five-Year Follow-up Study,” BMC (BioMed Central) Medicine, Dec. 12, 2005
  70. Aaron Sharockman, “Rep. Richard Corcoran Says 90 Percent of Prenatal Down Syndrome Cases Result in Abortion,”, Apr. 28, 2011
  71. A.S. Bhadoria et al., Reproductive Factors and Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Tertiary Care Hospital of North India,” Indian Journal of Cancer, Oct.-Dec. 2013
  72. Yubei Huang et al., “A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Induced Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk Among Chinese Females,” Cancer Causes & Control, Feb. 2014
  73. Annalee Newitz, “What Happens to Women Denied Abortions? This Is the First Scientific Study to Find Out,”, Nov. 13, 2012
  74. Guttmacher Institute, “In Brief: Fact Sheet: Facts on Induced Abortion Worldwide,”, Jan. 2012
  75. Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, “Family Planning Program,” (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
  76. Child Welfare Information Gateway, US Department of Health and Human Services, “Persons Seeking to Adopt,”, Feb. 2011
  77. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, “Summary of Vital Statistics 2012: The City of New York: Pregnancy Outcomes,”, Feb. 2014
  78. Daniel Martin, “Abortion Should Not Be Used as a Contraceptive, Says Lord Steel, Father of 1967 Act That Legalised the Practice,”, June 18, 2013
  79. Gallup, “Abortion,” (accessed Feb. 10, 2015)
  80. Lydia Saad, “Americans Misjudge U.S. Abortion Views,”, May 15, 2013
  81. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, “Frequently Asked Questions: FAQ043: Special Procedures: Induced Abortion,”, Oct. 2011
  82. Planned Parenthood Federation of America, “In-Clinic Abortion Procedures,” (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
  83. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2010,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), Nov. 29, 2013
  84. Meghan Ashford-Grooms, “Rick Perry Says There Have Been 50 Million Abortions Since Roe,”, Feb. 1, 2011
  85. Sandhya Somashekhar, “Study: Abortion Rate at Lowest Point Since 1973,”, Feb. 2, 2014
  86. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), “Historical Attitudes to Abortion,” (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
  87. Malcolm Potts et al., Abortion, 1977
  88. American Pregnancy Association, “First Fetal Movement: Quickening,”, July 2007
  89. National Abortion Federation, “History of Abortion,” (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
  90. Chicago Tribune, “Timeline of Abortion Laws and Events,”, 2014
  91. Kate Manning, “Leeches, Lye and Spanish Fly,”, Jan. 21, 2013
  92. Dorothy E. McBride, Abortion in the United States: A Reference Handbook, 2008
  93. Justin Dyer, “Fictional Abortion History,”, Dec. 24, 2012
  94. Pew Research Center, “Roe v. Wade at 40: Most Oppose Overturning Abortion Decision,”, Jan. 16, 2013
  95. Office on Women’s Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, “Pregnancy: Stages of Pregnancy,”, Sep. 27, 2010
  96. Joshua Prager, “The Accidental Activist,”, Feb. 2013
  97. CNN Library, “Roe v. Wade Fast Facts,”, Nov. 4, 2013
  98., “All Statements from Pro Life Groups Condemning Tiller Murder,”, June 1, 2009
  99. National Abortion Federation, “NAF Violence and Disruption Statistics: Incidence of Violence & Disruption against Abortion Providers in the US & Canada,” (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
  100. Richard N. Ostling, “A Second Religious Conversion for ‘Jane Roe’ of Roe vs. Wade,” Associated Press,, Oct. 19, 1998
  101. Guttmacher Institute, “State Policies in Brief: State Policies on Later Abortions,”, Apr. 1, 2014
  102. Liz Halloran and Julie Rovner, “High Court’s Pass on ‘Fetal Pain’ Abortion Case Unlikely to Cool Debate,”, Jan. 13, 2014
  103. Rachel Benson Gold and Elizabeth Nash, “Troubling Trend: More States Hostile to Abortion Rights as Middle Ground Shrinks,” Guttmacher Policy Review, Winter 2012
  104. Guttmacher Institute, “States Enact Record Number of Abortion Restrictions in First Half of 2011,”, July 13, 2011
  105. Elizabeth Nash et al., “Laws Affecting Reproductive Health and Rights: 2013 State Policy Review,” (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
  106. Suzanne M. Alford, “Is Self-Abortion a Fundamental Right?,” Duke Law Journal, 2003
  107. Alex McBride, “Landmark Cases: Casey v. Planned Parenthood (1992),” (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
  108. Janet Benshoof, “Planned Parenthood v Casey: The Impact of the New Undue Burden Standard on Reproductive Health Care,” JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association), May 5, 1993
  109. NBC News, “Planned Parenthood v. Casey,”, June 29, 1992
  110. Michael Muskal, “Pact Reached to Keep North Dakota’s Only Abortion Clinic Open,”, Mar. 14, 2014
  111. Irin Carmon, “Appeals Court Upholds Law That Closed Texas Abortion Clinics,”, Mar. 28, 2014
  112. Manny Fernandez, “In Texas, a Senator’s Stand Catches the Spotlight,”, June 26, 2013
  113. Jeffrey Toobin, “The People’s Choice,”, Jan. 28, 2013
  114. Advancing New Standards in Reproductive Health (ANSIRH), University of California at San Francisco, “Turnaway Study,” (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)
  115. Penny Young Nance, “Celebrate Life, Embrace Grace…End Abortion,”, Jan. 23, 2012
  116. Sarah Terzo, “‘Pro-Choice'” Blog Supports Abortion as Method of Birth Control,”, Mar. 31, 2013
  117. Brinda Adhikari, “Tim Tebow Super Bowl Ad: Anti-Abortion Commercial to Air,”, Jan. 26, 2010
  118. Catholic World News, “Celine Dion Says Priest Told Mom Not to Abort Her,”, Jan. 10, 2001
  119. Courtney Hazlett, “Justin Bieber’s Mom Tells Why She Chose Not to Abort at 17,”, Sep. 14, 2012
  120. Edna Gundersen, “Lifetime Special ‘Dear Mom, Love Cher’ Turns Back Time,”, May 6, 2013
  121. Chicago Tribune editorial staff, “Editorial: The Decline of Abortion,”, Feb. 4, 2014
  122. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and American Medical Association, “Brief of Amici Curiae [in Planned Parenthood of Greater Texas Surgical Health Services et al. v. Attorney General Gregory Abbot et al.],”, Dec. 19, 2013
  123. Alex Witchel, “At Home with: Norma McCorvey; Of Roe, Dreams And Choices,”, July 28, 1994
  124. Rachel K. Jones and Jenna Jerman, “Abortion Incidence and Service Availability in the United States, 2011,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Mar. 2014
  125. Esmé E. Deprez, “The Vanishing Abortion Clinic,”, Nov. 27, 2013
  126. Unborn Victims of Violence Act of 2004,, Apr. 1, 2004
  127. National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), “Fetal Homicide Laws,”, Feb. 2013
  128. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), “Responsibility of the Mother,” (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)
  129. Bryce Covert, “How Denying Women Access to Reproductive Choices Costs Taxpayers,”, July 1, 2013
  130. Tara Culp-Ressler, “Everything You Need to Know about the 20-Week Abortion Ban Advancing in the House,”, June 18, 2013
  131. Kenneth R. Weiss, “Fertility Rates Fall, but Global Population Explosion Goes On,”, July 22, 2012
  132. S.D. Mumford and E. Kessel, “Role of Abortion in Control of Global Population Growth,” Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mar. 1986
  133. “Jeremiah 1:5,” (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)
  134. Our Bodies Ourselves (OBOS, aka Boston Women’s Health Book Collective), “Reproductive Choices,” (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)
  135. Katie McDonough, “Fetal Pain Is a Lie: How Phony Science Took Over the Abortion Debate,”, Aug. 7, 2013
  136. American Sociological Association, “Sociologists Find Lowest-Paid Women Suffer Most from Motherhood Penalty,”, Oct. 5, 2010
  137. John Horgan, “Ethicist Peter Singer Critiques Roe v. Wade, Obamacare, Romney,”, Oct. 22, 2012
  138. Ezra Klein, “Transcript: The 2012 VP Debate,”, Oct. 12, 2012
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  140. General Assembly Mission Council of the Presbyterian Church (USA), “Presbyterian 101 – Abortion Issues,” (accessed Feb. 25, 2011)
  141. Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations, “Right to Choose,”, June 3, 2010
  142. Mary Wisniewski, “‘Fetal Pain’ Anti-Abortion Laws Spur Fierce Debate,”, Apr. 6, 2011
  143. Pope Francis, “Address of His Holiness Pope Francis to the Members of the Diplomatic Corps Accredited to the Holy See,”, Jan. 13, 2014
  144. Michael Chapman, “Columbine Happens Every Day,” (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)
  145. William Grimes, “B.N. Nathanson, 84, Dies; Changed Sides on Abortion,”, Feb. 21, 2011
  146. Guttmacher Institute, “Are You in the Know?: Abortion: Cost of Abortion Services in the United States,” (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)
  147. Susan Dudley, “Economics of Abortion,” National Abortion Federation website,, 2003
  148. Sivaya Subramuniyaswami, “Let’s Talk About Abortion,”, Jan. 1993
  149. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), “Buddhism and Abortion,”, Nov. 23, 2009
  150. Patt Morrison, “The Coat Hanger, Symbol of Dangerous, Pre-Roe Abortions, Is Back,”, Mar. 25, 2014
  151. Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, US Religious Landscape Survey: Religious Beliefs and Practices: Diverse and Politically Relevant,, June 2008
  152. Susan A. Cohen, “Still True: Abortion Does Not Increase Women’s Risk of Mental Health Problems,” Guttmacher Policy Review, Spring 2013
  153. Terry Baynes, “Fanning Furor, Justice Scalia Says Appeals Court Judge Lied,”, Sep. 17, 2012
  154. Steve Benen, “Scalia Rejects Privacy Rights,”, Oct. 31, 2013
  155. Constitution of the United States: Amendment XIV,, July 9, 1868
  156. Paul Pauker, “The Case against Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood v. Casey,”, June 1, 2011
  157. Michael J. New, “Abortion and the 14th Amendment,”, Sep. 6, 2011
  158. Corinne H. Rocca, Katrina Kimport, et al., “Women’s Emotions One Week after Receiving or Being Denied an Abortion in the United States,” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Sep. 2013
  159. Ushma Upadhyay, Sheila Desai, et al. “Incidence of Emergency Department Visits and Complications after Abortion,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, Jan. 2015
  160. Amanda Scherker, “10 Abortion Myths That Need to Be Busted,”, Jan. 26, 2015
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  162. Dan Balz, “The GOP Takeover in the States,”, Nov. 13, 2010
  163. Guttmacher Institute, “In Just the Last Four Years, States Have Enacted 231 Abortion Restrictions,”, Jan. 5, 2015
  164. Jodi Jacobson, “Late Abortions: Facts, Stories, and Ways to Help,”, June 2, 2009
  165. Rebecca Riffkin, “Fewest Americans Satisfied with Abortion Policies Since 2001,”, Jan. 2015
  166. Susan J. Lee, Henry J. Peter Ralston, et al., “Fetal Pain: A Systematic Multidisciplinary Review of the Evidence,” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, Aug. 24, 2005
  167. Pete Williams, “Supreme Court Strikes Down Strict Texas Abortion Law,”, June 27, 2016
  168. Donald J. Trump, “Presidential Memorandum Regarding the Mexico City Policy,”, Jan. 23, 2017
  169. Democratic Party, “2016 Democratic Party Platform,”, 2016
  170. Lydia Saad, “U.S. Abortion Attitudes Stable; No Consensus on Legality,”, June 9, 2017
  171. Republican Party, “Republican Party Platform, 2016”, 2016
  172. Carolyn J. Davis, et al., “Young People Set to Impact the Debate on Women’s Health Issues,”, 2018
  173. Gallup, “Abortion,” (accessed May 14, 2018)
  174. Marist Poll and Knights of Columbus, “Americans’ Opinions on Abortion,”, Jan. 2018
  175. Hannah Fingerhut, “About Seven-in-Ten Americans Oppose Overturning Roe v. Wade,”, Jan. 3, 2017
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  177. Guttmacher Institute, “Induced Abortion in the United States,” (accessed May 15, 2018)
  178. Elizabeth Nash, et al., “Policy Trends in the States, 2017,”, Jan. 2, 2018
  179. Elizabeth Nash, et al., “Policy Trends in the States: First Quarter 2018,”, Apr. 17, 2018
  180. Guttmacher Institute, “93% of Women in the South Live in a State Hostile to or Extremely Hostile to Abortion,”, Jan. 3, 2017
  181. Sarah Fowler, “Judge Blocks Mississippi’s 15-Week Abortion Ban from Going into Effect,”, Mar. 20, 218
  182. Associated Press, “Iowa Judge Agrees to Halt Fetal Heartbeat Abortion Law,”, June 1, 2018
  183. Jennifer Haberkorn, “North Dakota’s Six-Week Abortion Ban Struck,”, July 22, 2015
  184. Adam Liptak, “Supreme Court Allows Arkansas Abortion Restrictions to Stand,”, May 29, 2018
  185. Nina Totenberg, “Supreme Court Declines to Hear Challenge to Arkansas Abortion Law,”, May 29, 2018
  186. Guttmacher Institute, “Abortion Bans in Cases of Sex or Race Selection or Genetic Anomaly,”, June 1, 2018
  187. Guttmacher Institute, “State Policies on Later Abortions,”, June 1, 2018
  188. Guttmacher Institute, “Requirements for Ultrasound,”, June 1, 2018
  189. NRLC, “Abortion Statistics: United States Data and Trends – Reported Annual Abortions,” (accessed June 12, 2018)
  190. Guttmacher Institute, “Induced Abortion in the United States,”, Jan. 2018
  191. Rachel K. Jones and Jenna Jerman, “Abortion Incidence and Service Availability in the United States, 2014,”, Jan. 17, 2017
  192. Abortion Care Network, “Communities Need Clinics,”, 2017
  193. Yvette Romero, “Planned Parenthood Closings Leave Some Patients with No Options,”, June 1, 2017
  194. Allison McCann, “The Last Clinics,”, May 23, 2017
  195. National Abortion Federation, “2017 Violence and Disruption Statistics,”, 2017
  196. Dorothy Samuels, “Where Abortion Rights Are Disappearing,”, Sep. 24, 2011
  197. Shelby McNabb, et al., “2016 National Clinic Violence Survey,”, Feb. 2017
  198. Pete Williams, “Detained Pregnant Teen Can Get Abortion, Appeal Court Rules,”, Oct. 24, 2017
  199. United States District Court for the District of Columbia, “Rochelle Garza v. Eric D. Hargan: Civil Action No. 17-cv-02122 (TSC),”, Mar. 30, 2018
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  201. Pew Research Center, “Public Opinion on Abortion: Views on Abortion, 1995-2017,”, July 7, 2017
  202. Susheela Singh et al, “Abortion Worldwide 2017: Uneven Progress and Unequal Access,”, Mar. 2018
  203. National Council for Adoption, “Adoption by the Numbers,”, Feb. 15. 2017
  204. New York State, “Table 23: Induced Abortion and Abortion Ratios* by Race/Ethnicity and Resident County New York State – 2015,”, 2015
  205. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, “Summary of Vital Statistics 2016 The City of New York: Infant Mortality,”, 2016
  206. Alabama Secretary of State, “Fair Ballot Commission: 2017-2018 Statewide Constitutional Amendments – Ballot Statements,” (accessed Nov. 7, 2018)
  207. West Virginia Legislature, “2018 Regular Session – Enrolled Committee Substitute for Senate Joint Resolution 12,”, Mar. 5, 2018
  208. Oregon Secretary of State, “Measure No. 106 Amends Constitution: Prohibits Spending ‘Public Funds’ (Defined) Directly/Indirectly for ‘Abortion’ (Defined); Exceptions; Reduces Abortion Access,”, Aug. 8, 2018
  209. Guttmacher Institute, “Abortion Policy in the Absence of Roe,”, Apr. 1, 2019
  210. Susan Milligan, “Oregon Passes Law Protecting Abortion and Reproductive Rights,”, Aug. 15, 2017
  211. Erin Corbett, “Abortion Is Still Legal in All 50 States,”, May 17, 2019
  212. Katie Reilly, “Alabama’s Abortion Ban Is Designed to Challenge Roe v. Wade at the Supreme Court. Here’s What Happens Next,”, May 15, 2019
  213. Amanda Michelle Gomez, “States Are Already Pre-Filing ‘Fetal Heartbeat’ Bans for the New Year,”, Dec. 20, 2018
  214. Marisa Iati and Deanna Paul, “Everything You Need to Know about the Abortion Ban News,”, May 17, 2019
  215. Amelia Thomson-DeVeaux, “Here’s Why the Anti-Abortion Movement Is Escalating,”, May 21, 2019
  216. Rachel K. Jones, Elizabeth Witwer, and Jenna Jerman, “Abortion Incidence and Service Availability in the United States, 2017,”, Sep. 2019


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