Last updated on: 4/24/2023 | Author:


The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following sources.


1.Pan Belluck, "Complex Science at Issue in Politics of Fetal Pain,", Sep. 16, 2013
2.Pew Research, "Abortion Viewed in Moral Terms: Fewer See Stem Cell Research and IVF as Moral Issues,", Aug. 15, 2013
3.E.G. Raymond and D.A. Grimes, "The Comparative Safety of Legal Induced Abortion and Childbirth in the United States," Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feb. 2012
4.Rachel K. Jones, Mia R. S. Zolna, et al., "Abortion in the United States: Incidence and Access to Services, 2005," Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Mar. 4, 2008
5.Terry Eastland, "The Forgotten Option," The Weekly Standard, Jan. 29, 2003
6.Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice, "Member Organizations," (accessed Apr. 5, 2010)
7.Willard Cates, Jr. et. al, "The Public Health Impact of Legal Abortion: 30 Years Later," Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health,, Jan.-Feb. 2003
8.Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania et al. v. Casey, Governor of Pennsylvania, et al.,, June 29, 1992
9.Amy Harmon, "Prenatal Test Puts Down Syndrome in Hard Focus,", May 9, 2007
10.Stuart W. G. Derbyshire, "Can Fetuses Feel Pain?," British Medical Journal, Apr. 29, 2006
11.Elisabeth Ahman and Iqbal Shah, World Health Organization, Unsafe Abortion: Global and Regional Estimates of the Incidence of Unsafe Abortion and Associated Mortality in 2000, Fourth Edition, 2004
12.Beth Reinhard, "Should Mothers Be Forced to Bear Disabled Children against Their Will?,", Oct. 10, 2013
13.Guttmacher Institute, "Induced Abortion in the United States,", July 2014
14.Peter Frank, et al., "The Effect of Induced Abortion on Subsequent Fertility," Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth, June 1993
15.Eric Pace, "Dr. Jerome Lejeune Dies at 67; Found Cause of Down Syndrome,", Apr. 12, 1994
16.Mark Mittelberg, The Questions Christians Hope No One Will Ask (with Answers), 2010
17.American Medical Association (AMA), "H-5.995 Abortion," (accessed Mar. 12, 2010)
18.Ronald Bailey, "Do Fetuses Feel Pain?,", July 12, 2013
19.Lawrence B. Finer, Lori F. Frohwirth, et al., "Reasons US Women Have Abortions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives," Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Sep. 2005
20.John J. Donohue, and Steven D. Levitt, "The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, May 2001

[Editor's Note: Despite admitting to an error in one of this study's tables, Levitt has stated that "the story we put forth in the paper is not materially changed by the coding error." See Steven D. Levitt, "Everything in Freakonomics Is Wrong!,", Nov. 28, 2005]
21.Paul R. Ehrlich, The Population Bomb, 1968
22.Planned Parenthood of New Jersey, "Anti-Choice Claims about Abortion and Breast Cancer," (accessed Apr. 1, 2010)
23.The Holy Bible: King James Version (accessed Apr. 1, 2010)
24.Annie Murphy Paul, "The First Ache," New York Times Magazine, Feb. 10, 2008
25.Henry E. Sigerist, The Hippocratic Oath: Text, Translation, and Interpretation, 1996
26.David. C. Reardon, et al., "Deaths Associated with Pregnancy Outcome: A Record Linkage Study of Low Income Women," Southern Medical Journal, Aug. 2002
27.Priscilla Coleman, and Eileen S. Nelson, "The Quality of Abortion Decisions and College Students' Reports of Post-Abortion Emotional Sequelae and Abortion Attitudes," Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Apr. 1998
28.Terry Eastland, "The Forgotten Option," The Weekly Standard, Jan. 29, 2003
29."Landmark Study Shows Vast Majority of Americans Support Adoption," (accessed Apr. 1, 2010)
30.James M.M. Francis, Adults as Children: Images of Childhood in the Ancient World and the New Testament, 2006
31.Franklin Foer, "Fetal Viability,", May 25, 1997
32.James Davison Hunter, Before the Shooting Begins: Searching for Democracy in America's Culture War, 1994
33.Rick Lowery, "Abortion: What the Bible Says (and Doesn't Say),", Sep. 14, 2012
34.Yuelian Sun, et al., "Induced Abortion and Risk of Subsequent Miscarriage," International Journal of Epidemiology, June 2003
35.Jose Russo and Irma Russo, "Susceptibility of the Mammary Gland to Carcinogenesis. Pregnancy Interruption as a Risk Factor in Tumor Incidence," The American Journal of Pathology, Aug. 1980
36.Randy Hultgren, "Americans Should Not Have to Pay for Abortions through Obamacare,", Jan. 21, 2014
37.Christopher L. Foote and Christopher F. Goetz, "The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime: Comment," Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Jan. 31, 2008
38.Megan McArdle, "Department of Awful Statistics,", Oct. 16, 2007
39.The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, "Induced Abortion,", Nov. 2008
40.Karen Pazol, Sonya B. Gambl, et al., "Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2006," CDC - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Nov. 27, 2009
41.Suzanne M. Alford, "Is Self-Abortion a Fundamental Right?," Duke Law Journal, Mar. 2003
42.The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, "Induced Abortion,", Nov. 2008
43.Lawrence B. Finer and Stanley K. Henshaw, "Abortion Incidence and Services in the United States in 2000," Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Jan/Feb. 2003
44.Willy Pedersen, "Abortion and Depression: A Population-based Longitudinal Study of Young Women," Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, June 2008
45.Mika Gissler et al., "Suicides after Pregnancy in Finland, 1987–94: Register Linkage Study," BMJ, Dec. 7, 1996
36.Wendy Koch, "USA Faces Critical Adoption Shortage,", Jan. 10, 2013
47.Monica Davey, "Nebraska Law Sets Limits on Abortion," New York Times, Apr. 13, 2010
48.James C. McKinley, Jr., "Strict Abortion Measures Enacted in Oklahoma," New York Times, Apr. 27, 2010
49.Roe v. Wade, US Supreme Court,, Jan. 22, 1973
50.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), "Unintended Pregnancy Prevention: Home," (accessed Oct. 20, 2010)
51.US Declaration of Independence,, July 4, 1776
52.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), "Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2006," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR),, Nov. 27, 2009
53.National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), "Who Adopts? Characteristics of Women and Men Who Have Adopted Children," NCHS Data Brief,, Jan. 2009
54.Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as Amended,, Sep. 25, 2008
55.Democratic National Committee, "Moving America Forward: 2012 Democratic National Platform,", 2012
56.Republican National Committee, "We Believe in America: 2012 Republican Platform,", 2012
57.Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, US Supreme Court,, June 29, 1992
58.Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003,, Nov. 5, 2003
59.Gonzales, Attorney General v. Carhart et al. / Gonzales, Attorney General v. Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., et al., US Supreme Court,, Apr. 18, 2007
60."Policy Statement of the United States of America at the United Nations International Conference on Population (Second Session)",, Aug. 16-13, 1984
61.Barack Obama, "Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development,", Jan. 23, 2009
62.The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act,, Mar. 23, 2010
63.Barack Obama, "Executive Order: Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act,", Mar. 24, 2010
64.Nathan Koppel, "Arizona Criminalizes Certain Abortions,", Mar. 30, 2011
65.Rachel K. Jones and Kathryn Kooistra, "Abortion Incidence and Access to Services in the United States, 2008," Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Mar. 2011
66.National Down Syndrome Society, "Myths & Truths," (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
67.Susan Donaldson James, "Down Syndrome Births Are Down in U.S.,", Nov. 2, 2009
68.Guttmacher Institute, "Are You in the Know?: Abortion: Characteristics of U.S. Women Having Abortions," (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
69.Anne Nordal Broen et al., "The Course of Mental Health after Miscarriage and Induced Abortion: A Longitudinal, Five-Year Follow-up Study," BMC (BioMed Central) Medicine, Dec. 12, 2005
70.Aaron Sharockman, "Rep. Richard Corcoran Says 90 Percent of Prenatal Down Syndrome Cases Result in Abortion,", Apr. 28, 2011
71.A.S. Bhadoria et al., Reproductive Factors and Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Tertiary Care Hospital of North India," Indian Journal of Cancer, Oct.-Dec. 2013
72.Yubei Huang et al., "A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Induced Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk among Chinese Females," Cancer Causes Control, Feb. 2014
73.Annalee Newitz, "What Happens to Women Denied Abortions? This Is the First Scientific Study to Find Out,", Nov. 13, 2012
74.Guttmacher Institute, "In Brief: Fact Sheet: Facts on Induced Abortion Worldwide,", Jan. 2012
75.Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, "Family Planning Program," (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
76.Child Welfare Information Gateway, US Department of Health and Human Services, "Persons Seeking to Adopt,", Feb. 2011
77.New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, "Summary of Vital Statistics 2012: The City of New York: Pregnancy Outcomes,", Feb. 2014
78.Daniel Martin, "Abortion Should Not Be Used as a Contraceptive, Says Lord Steel, Father of 1967 Act That Legalised the Practice,", June 18, 2013
79.Gallup, "Abortion," (accessed Feb. 10, 2015)
80.Lydia Saad, "Americans Misjudge U.S. Abortion Views,", May 15, 2013
81.American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, "Frequently Asked Questions: FAQ043: Special Procedures: Induced Abortion,", Oct. 2011
82.Planned Parenthood Federation of America, "In-Clinic Abortion Procedures," (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
83.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2010," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), Nov. 29, 2013
84.Meghan Ashford-Grooms, "Rick Perry Says There Have Been 50 Million Abortions since Roe,", Feb. 1, 2011
85.Sandhya Somashekhar, "Study: Abortion Rate at Lowest Point Since 1973,", Feb. 2, 2014<
86.British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), "Historical Attitudes to Abortion," (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
87.Malcolm Potts, et al., Abortion, 1977
88.American Pregnancy Association, "First Fetal Movement: Quickening,", July 2007
89.National Abortion Federation, "History of Abortion," (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
90.Chicago Tribune, "Timeline of Abortion Laws and Events,", 2014
91.Kate Manning, "Leeches, Lye and Spanish Fly,", Jan. 21, 2013
92.Dorothy E. McBride, Abortion in the United States: A Reference Handbook, 2008
93.Justin Dyer, "Fictional Abortion History,", Dec. 24, 2012
94.Pew Research Center, "Roe v. Wade at 40: Most Oppose Overturning Abortion Decision,", Jan. 16, 2013
95.Office on Women’s Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, "Pregnancy: Stages of Pregnancy,", Sep. 27, 2010
96.Joshua Prager, "The Accidental Activist,", Feb. 2013
97.CNN Library, "Roe v. Wade Fast Facts,", Nov. 4, 2013, "All Statements from Pro Life Groups Condemning Tiller Murder,", June 1, 2009
101.National Abortion Federation, "NAF Violence and Disruption Statistics: Incidence of Violence &; Disruption against Abortion Providers in the US &; Canada," (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
100.Richard N. Ostling, "A Second Religious Conversion for 'Jane Roe' of Roe vs. Wade,", Oct. 19, 1998
101.Guttmacher Institute, "State Policies in Brief: State Policies on Later Abortions,", Apr. 1, 2014
102.Liz Halloran and Julie Rovner, "High Court's Pass on 'Fetal Pain' Abortion Case Unlikely to Cool Debate,", Jan. 13, 2014
103.Rachel Benson Gold and Elizabeth Nash, "Troubling Trend: More States Hostile to Abortion Rights as Middle Ground Shrinks," Guttmacher Policy Review, Winter 2012
104.Guttmacher Institute, "States Enact Record Number of Abortion Restrictions in First Half of 2011,", July 13, 2011
105.Elizabeth Nash et al., "Laws Affecting Reproductive Health and Rights: 2013 State Policy Review," (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
106.Suzanne M. Alford, "Is Self-Abortion a Fundamental Right?," Duke Law Journal, 2003
107.Alex McBride, "Landmark Cases: Casey v. Planned Parenthood (1992)," (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)
108.Janet Benshoof, "Planned Parenthood v Casey: The Impact of the New Undue Burden Standard on Reproductive Health Care," JAMA, May 5, 1993
109.NBC News, "Planned Parenthood v. Casey,", June 29, 1992
110.Michael Muskal, "Pact Reached to Keep North Dakota's Only Abortion Clinic Open,", Mar. 14, 2014
111.Irin Carmon, "Appeals Court Upholds Law That Closed Texas Abortion Clinics,", Mar. 28, 2014
112.Manny Fernandez, "In Texas, a Senator’s Stand Catches the Spotlight,", June 26, 2013
113.Jeffrey Toobin, "The People's Choice,", Jan. 28, 2013
114.Advancing New Standards in Reproductive Health (ANSIRH), University of California at San Francisco, "Turnaway Study," (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)
115.Penny Young Nance, "Celebrate Life, Embrace Grace...End Abortion,", Jan. 23, 2012
116.Sarah Terzo, "'Pro-Choice' Blog Supports Abortion as Method of Birth Control,", Mar. 31, 2013
117.Brinda Adhikari, "Tim Tebow Super Bowl Ad: Anti-Abortion Commercial to Air,", Jan. 26, 2010
118.Catholic World News, "Celine Dion Says Priest Told Mom Not to Abort Her,", Jan. 10, 2001
119.Courtney Hazlett, "Justin Bieber's Mom Tells Why She Chose Not to Abort at 17,", Sep. 14, 2012
120.Edna Gundersen, "Lifetime Special 'Dear Mom, Love Cher' Turns Back Time,", May 6, 2013
121.Chicago Tribune editorial staff, "Editorial: The Decline of Abortion,", Feb. 4, 2014
122.American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and American Medical Association, "Brief of Amici Curiae [in Planned Parenthood of Greater Texas Surgical Health Services et al. v. Attorney General Gregory Abbot et al.],", Dec. 19, 2013
123.Alex Witchel, "At Home with: Norma McCorvey; Of Roe, Dreams And Choices,", July 28, 1994
124.Rachel K. Jones and Jenna Jerman, "Abortion Incidence and Service Availability in the United States, 2011," Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Mar. 2014
125.Esmé E. Deprez, "The Vanishing Abortion Clinic,", Nov. 27, 2013
126.Unborn Victims of Violence Act of 2004,, Apr. 1, 2004
127.National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), "Fetal Homicide Laws,", Feb. 2013
128.British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), "Responsibility of the Mother," (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)
129.Bryce Covert, "How Denying Women Access to Reproductive Choices Costs Taxpayers,", July 1, 2013
130.Tara Culp-Ressler, "Everything You Need to Know about the 20-Week Abortion Ban Advancing in the House,", June 18, 2013
131.Kenneth R. Weiss, "Fertility Rates Fall, but Global Population Explosion Goes On,", July 22, 2012
132.S.D. Mumford and E. Kessel, "Role of Abortion in Control of Global Population Growth," Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mar. 1986
133."Jeremiah 1:5," (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)
134.Our Bodies Ourselves (OBOS, aka Boston Women's Health Book Collective), "Reproductive Choices," (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)
135.Katie McDonough, "Fetal Pain Is a Lie: How Phony Science Took over the Abortion Debate,", Aug. 7, 2013
136.American Sociological Association, "Sociologists Find Lowest-Paid Women Suffer Most from Motherhood Penalty,", Oct. 5, 2010
137.John Horgan, "Ethicist Peter Singer Critiques Roe v. Wade, Obamacare, Romney,", Oct. 22, 2012
138.Ezra Klein, "Transcript: The 2012 VP Debate,", Oct. 12, 2012
139.General Board of Church & Society of the United Methodist Church, "Family Planning and Reproductive Health - Social Principles,", 2008
140.General Assembly Mission Council of the Presbyterian Church (USA), "Presbyterian 101 - Abortion Issues," (accessed Feb. 25, 2011)
141.Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations, "Right to Choose,", June 3, 2010
142.Mary Wisniewski, "'Fetal Pain' Anti-Abortion Laws Spur Fierce Debate,", Apr. 6, 2011
143.Pope Francis, "Address of His Holiness Pope Francis to the Members of the Diplomatic Corps Accredited to the Holy See,", Jan. 13, 2014
144.Michael Chapman, "Columbine Happens Every Day," (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)
145.William Grimes, "B.N. Nathanson, 84, Dies; Changed Sides on Abortion,", Feb. 21, 2011
146.Guttmacher Institute, "Are You in the Know?: Abortion: Cost of Abortion Services in the United States," (accessed Apr. 22, 2014)
147.Susan Dudley, "Economics of Abortion," National Abortion Federation website,, 2003
148.Sivaya Subramuniyaswami, "Let's Talk About Abortion,", Jan. 1993
149.British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), "Buddhism and Abortion,", Nov. 23, 2009
150.Patt Morrison, "The Coat Hanger, Symbol of Dangerous, Pre-Roe Abortions, Is Back,", Mar. 25, 2014
151.Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, "US Religious Landscape Survey: Religious Beliefs and Practices: Diverse and Politically Relevant,", June 2008
152.Susan A. Cohen, "Still True: Abortion Does Not Increase Women’s Risk of Mental Health Problems," Guttmacher Policy Review, Spring 2013
153.Terry Baynes, "Fanning Furor, Justice Scalia Says Appeals Court Judge Lied,", Sep. 17, 2012
154.Steve Benen, "Scalia Rejects Privacy Rights,", Oct. 31, 2013
155.US Constitution, Amendment XIV,, July 9, 1868
156.Paul Pauker, "The Case against Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood v. Casey,", June 1, 2011
157.Michael J. New, "Abortion and the 14th Amendment,", Sep. 6, 2011
158.Corinne H. Rocca, et al., "Women's Emotions One Week after Receiving or Being Denied an Abortion in the United States," Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Sep. 2013
159.Ushma Upadhyay, et al., "Incidence of Emergency Department Visits and Complications after Abortion," Obstetrics & Gynecology, Jan. 2015
160.Amanda Scherker, "10 Abortion Myths That Need to Be Busted,", Jan. 26, 2015
161.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2011," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), Nov. 28, 2014
162.Dan Balz, "The GOP Takeover in the States,", Nov. 13, 2010
163.Guttmacher Institute, "In Just the Last Four Years, States Have Enacted 231 Abortion Restrictions,", Jan. 5, 2015
164.Jodi Jacobson, "Late Abortions: Facts, Stories, and Ways to Help,", June 2, 2009
165.Rebecca Riffkin, "Fewest Americans Satisfied with Abortion Policies Since 2001,", Jan. 2015
166.Susan J. Lee, et al., "Fetal Pain: A Systematic Multidisciplinary Review of the Evidence," JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, Aug. 24, 2005
167.Pete Williams, "Supreme Court Strikes down Strict Texas Abortion Law,", June 27, 2016
168.Donald J. Trump, "Presidential Memorandum Regarding the Mexico City Policy,", Jan. 23, 2017
169.Democratic Party, "2016 Democratic Party Platform,", 2016
170.Lydia Saad, "U.S. Abortion Attitudes Stable; No Consensus on Legality,", June 9, 2017
171.Republican Party, "Republican Party Platform, 2016", 2016
172.Carolyn J. Davis, et al., "Young People Set to Impact the Debate on Women's Health Issues,", 2018
173.Gallup, "Abortion," (accessed May 14, 2018)
174.Marist Poll and Knights of Columbus, "Americans' Opinions on Abortion,", Jan. 2018
175.Hannah Fingerhut, "About Seven-in-Ten Americans Oppose Overturning Roe v. Wade,", Jan. 3, 2017
176.Tara C. Jatlaoui, et al, "Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2014,", Nov. 24, 2017
177.Guttmacher Institute, "Induced Abortion in the United States," (accessed May 15, 2018)
178.Elizabeth Nash, et al., "Policy Trends in the States, 2017,”, Jan. 2, 2018
179.Elizabeth Nash, et al., "Policy Trends in the States: First Quarter 2018,", Apr. 17, 2018
180.Guttmacher Institute, "93% of Women in the South Live in a State Hostile to or Extremely Hostile to Abortion,", Jan. 3, 2017
181.Sarah Fowler, "Judge Blocks Mississippi's 15-Week Abortion Ban from Going into Effect,", Mar. 20, 218
182.Associated Press, "Iowa Judge Agrees to Halt Fetal Heartbeat Abortion Law,", June 1, 2018
183.Jennifer Haberkorn, "North Dakota's Six-Week Abortion Ban Struck,", July 22, 2015
184.Adam Liptak, "Supreme Court Allows Arkansas Abortion Restrictions to Stand,", May 29, 2018
185.Nina Totenberg, "Supreme Court Declines to Hear Challenge to Arkansas Abortion Law,", May 29, 2018
186.Guttmacher Institute, "Abortion Bans in Cases of Sex or Race Selection or Genetic Anomaly,", June 1, 2018
187.Guttmacher Institute, "State Policies on Later Abortions,", June 1, 2018
188.Guttmacher Institute, "Requirements for Ultrasound,", June 1, 2018
189.NRLC, "Abortion Statistics: United States Data and Trends - Reported Annual Abortions," (accessed June 12, 2018)
190.Guttmacher Institute, "Induced Abortion in the United States,", Jan. 2018
191.Rachel K. Jones and Jenna Jerman, "Abortion Incidence and Service Availability in the United States, 2014,", Jan. 17, 2017
192.Abortion Care Network, "Communities Need Clinics,", 2017
193.Yvette Romero, "Planned Parenthood Closings Leave Some Patients with No Options,", June 1, 2017
194.Allison McCann, "The Last Clinics,", May 23, 2017
195.National Abortion Federation, "2017 Violence and Disruption Statistics,", 2017
196.Dorothy Samuels, "Where Abortion Rights Are Disappearing,", Sep. 24, 2011
197.Shelby McNabb, et al., "2016 National Clinic Violence Survey,", Feb. 2017
198.Pete Williams, "Detained Pregnant Teen Can Get Abortion, Appeal Court Rules,", Oct. 24, 2017
199.United States District Court for the District of Columbia, "Rochelle Garza v. Eric D. Hargan: Civil Action No. 17-cv-02122 (TSC),", Mar. 30, 2018<
200.American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), "ACLU's Class-Action Challenge to Trump's Administration's No-Abortion Policy Continues in Lower Courts,", June 4, 2018
201.Pew Research Center, "Public Opinion on Abortion: Views on Abortion, 1995-2017,", July 7, 2017
202.Susheela Singh, et al., "Abortion Worldwide 2017: Uneven Progress and Unequal Access,", Mar. 2018
203.National Council for Adoption, "Adoption by the Numbers,", Feb. 15. 2017
204.New York State, "Table 23: Induced Abortion and Abortion Ratios* by Race/Ethnicity and Resident County New York State - 2015,", 2015
205.New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, "Summary of Vital Statistics 2016 The City of New York: Infant Mortality,", 2016
206.Alabama Secretary of State, "Fair Ballot Commission: 2017-2018 Statewide Constitutional Amendments - Ballot Statements," (accessed Nov. 7, 2018)
207.West Virginia Legislature, "2018 Regular Session - Enrolled Committee Substitute for Senate Joint Resolution 12,", Mar. 5, 2018
208.Oregon Secretary of State, "Measure No. 106 Amends Constitution: Prohibits Spending 'Public Funds' (Defined) Directly/Indirectly for 'Abortion' (Defined); Exceptions; Reduces Abortion Access,", Aug. 8, 2018
209.Guttmacher Institute, “Abortion Policy in the Absence of Roe,”, Apr. 1, 2019
210.Susan Milligan, “Oregon Passes Law Protecting Abortion and Reproductive Rights,”, Aug. 15, 2017
211.Erin Corbett, "Abortion Is Still Legal in All 50 States,", May 17, 2019
212.Katie Reilly, "Alabama's Abortion Ban Is Designed to Challenge Roe v. Wade at the Supreme Court. Here's What Happens Next,", May 15, 2019
213.Amanda Michelle Gomez, “States Are Already Pre-Filing ‘Fetal Heartbeat’ Bans for the New Year,”, Dec. 20, 2018
214.Marisa Iati and Deanna Paul, "Everything You Need to Know about the Abortion Ban News,", May 17, 2019
215.Amelia Thomson-DeVeaux, "Here's Why the Anti-Abortion Movement Is Escalating,", May 21, 2019
216.Rachel K. Jones, Elizabeth Witwer, and Jenna Jerman, "Abortion Incidence and Service Availability in the United States, 2017,", Sep. 2019
217.Jennifer Haberkorn, "Amid Coronavirus Outbreak Some Red States Move to Restrict Abortion, Spurring Legal Fight,", Apr. 9, 2020
218.Patricia Bauer, "Norma McCorvey,", May 21, 2020
219.John Kruzel, "Supreme Court Strikes down Louisiana Abortion Restrictions,", June 29, 2020
220.Alexandra Sternlicht, "Abortion Pill Available By Mail During Pandemic, Court Rules,", July 14, 2020
221.Joe Biden, "Memorandum on Protecting Women’s Health at Home and Abroad,", Jan. 28, 2021
222.Megan Brenan, "Record-High 47% in U.S. Think Abortion Is Morally Acceptable,", June 8, 2021
223.Lydia Saad, "Americans Still Oppose Overturning Roe v. Wade,", June 9, 2021
224.Roni Caryn Rabin, "Answers to Questions about the Texas Abortion Law,", Sep. 7, 2021
225.Ariel Edwards-Levy, "Fewer Than One-Third of Americans Want to See Roe v. Wade Overturned, New Polling Finds,", Sep. 22, 2021
226.Pam Belluck, "F.D.A. Will Permanently Allow Abortion Pills by Mail,", Dec. 16, 2021
227.Josh Gerstein and Alexander Ward, "Supreme Court Has Voted to Overturn Abortion Rights, Draft Opinion Shows,", May, 2, 2022
228.Stephen Collinson, "Supreme Court Abortion Bombshell Suggests a Staggering Change in American Life,", May 3, 2022
229.Guttmacher Institute, "Abortion Policy in the Absence of Roe,", Apr. 4, 2022
230.Ryan Nickerson and Jordan Ray-Hart, "What to Know about Texas’ Abortion Law, with Roe v. Wade Reportedly in Serious Jeopardy," May 3, 2022
231.Nicole Fallert, "State Abortion Restrictions Are Ramping up Like Never Before as the Supreme Court Prepares to Make a Crucial Decision,", Feb. 18, 2022
232.Alison Durkee, "Idaho Enacts Law Copying Texas’ Abortion Ban — and These States Might Be Next,", Mar. 23, 2022
233.Mary Kekatos, "Oklahoma Legislature Passes 6-Week Abortion Ban Similar to Texas Law,", Apr. 28, 2022
234CDC, "CDCs Abortion Surveillance System FAQs,", Nov. 22, 2021
235.Elizabeth Nash, "State Policy Trends 2021: The Worst Year for Abortion Rights in Almost Half a Century,", Jan. 5, 2022
236.Dennis Thompson, "Abortion Remains Medically Safe for U.S. Women,", Nov. 24, 2021
237.Cynthia Koons, “The Abortion Pill Is Safer Than Tylenol and Almost Impossible to Get,”, Feb. 17, 2022
238.Angela Hill and Karen Rodriguez, “Abortion Pill Restricted by FDA for Decades Has Better Safety Record than Penicillin and Viagra,”, July 10, 2020
239.Elizabeth Weise, “Pregnancy-Related Deaths Could Rise 20% or More in States That Outlaw Abortion, Experts Say,”, May 5, 2022
240.World Health Organization, “Abortion,”, Nov. 25, 2021
241.Julia Ries, “Ectopic Pregnancies Are Dangerous. Will They Be Affected by Abortion Bans?,”, May 11, 2022
242.Charlotte Huff, “In Texas, Abortion Laws Inhibit Care for Miscarriages,”, May 10, 2022
243.Roni Caryn Rabin, “Texas Abortion Law Complicates Care for Risky Pregnancies,”, Nov. 26, 2021
244.Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Ectopic Pregnancy,”, May 13, 2021
245.Krissi Danielsson, “Ectopic Pregnancy Statistics,”, Mar. 03, 2021
246.Anna North, “This Life-Threatening Pregnancy Complication Is the Next Frontier in the Abortion Debate,”, Sep. 11, 2019
247.Krissi Danielsson, “Different Types of Pregnancy Loss,”, Sep. 13, 2021
248.Ariana Eunjung Cha and Emily Wax-Thibodeaux, “Abortion Foes Push to Narrow ‘Life of Mother’ Exceptions,”, May 18, 2022
249.Alicia Victoria Lozano, “Some Birth Control Could Be Banned If Roe v. Wade Is Overturned, Legal Experts Warn,”, May 12, 2022
250.David Lawder, “Yellen Says Ending Abortion Access Would Be ‘Damaging’ to U.S. Economy, Women,”, May 10, 2022
251.ANSIRH, “The Harms of Denying a Woman a Wanted Abortion Findings from the Turnaway Study,” (accessed May 19, 2022)
252.Anneken Tappe, “Limiting Abortion Access Is Bad for the Economy,”, May 16, 2022
253.Megan Burbank and Emily Kwong, “A Landmark Study Tracks the Lasting Effect of Having an Abortion — or Being Denied One,”, May 15, 2022
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285.Chris Boyette and Tierney Sneed, "Federal Judge Blocks HHS Guidance That Emergency Medical Care Must Include Abortion Services,", Aug. 24, 2022
286.Tierney Sneed, "Judge Blocks Enforcement of Idaho’s Abortion Ban in Medical Emergencies Day before It Was Set to Take Effect,", Aug. 24, 2022
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290.Pam Belluck, The F.D.A. Now Says It Plainly: Morning-After Pills Are Not Abortion Pills,, Dec. 23, 2022
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292.Jake Johnson, “Despicable”: Idaho Becomes First US State to Restrict Interstate Travel for Abortion Care,", Apr. 6, 2023
293.Pam Belluck, “Two Federal Judges Issued Opposing Rulings on Abortion Pills. Here’s What’s Going On.,”, Apr. 8, 2023
294.Anne Flaherty, Mireya Villarreal, and Ashley Riegle, “DOJ Files Appeal after Judge Reverses FDA Approval of Abortion Drug,”, Apr. 8, 2023
295.Tierney Sneed, “Rival Rulings on Medication Abortion Hypercharge the Post-Roe Legal War,”, Apr. 8, 2023
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299.Claire Cain Miller and Margot Sanger-Katz, "Despite State Bans, Legal Abortions Didn’t Fall Nationwide in Year After Dobbs,", Oct. 24, 2023