Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
  1. Pan Belluck, "Complex Science at Issue in Politics of Fetal Pain,", Sep. 16, 2013

  2. Pew Research, "Abortion Viewed in Moral Terms: Fewer See Stem Cell Research and IVF as Moral Issues,", Aug. 15, 2013

  3. E.G. Raymond and D.A. Grimes, "The Comparative Safety of Legal Induced Abortion and Childbirth in the United States," Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feb. 2012

  4. Rachel K. Jones, Mia R. S. Zolna, et al., "Abortion in the United States: Incidence and Access to Services, 2005," Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Mar. 4, 2008

  5. Terry Eastland, "The Forgotten Option," The Weekly Standard, Jan. 29, 2003

  6. Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice, "Member Organizations," (accessed Apr. 5, 2010)

  7. Willard Cates, Jr. et. al, "The Public Health Impact of Legal Abortion: 30 Years Later," Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health,, Jan.-Feb. 2003

  8. Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania et al. v. Casey, Governor of Pennsylvania, et al.,, June 29, 1992

  9. Amy Harmon, "Prenatal Test Puts Down Syndrome in Hard Focus,", May 9, 2007

  10. Stuart W. G. Derbyshire, "Can Fetuses Feel Pain?," British Medical Journal, Apr. 29, 2006

  11. Elisabeth Ahman and Iqbal Shah, World Health Organization, Unsafe Abortion: Global and Regional Estimates of the Incidence of Unsafe Abortion and Associated Mortality in 2000, Fourth Edition, 2004

  12. Beth Reinhard, "Should Mothers Be Forced to Bear Disabled Children against Their Will?,", Oct. 10, 2013

  13. Guttmacher Institute, "Induced Abortion in the United States,", July 2014

  14. Peter Frank, et al., "The Effect of Induced Abortion on Subsequent Fertility," Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth, June 1993

  15. Eric Pace, "Dr. Jerome Lejeune Dies at 67; Found Cause of Down Syndrome,", Apr. 12, 1994

  16. Mark Mittelberg, The Questions Christians Hope No One Will Ask (with Answers), 2010

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  18. Ronald Bailey, "Do Fetuses Feel Pain?,", July 12, 2013

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  20. John J. Donohue, and Steven D. Levitt, "The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, May 2001 (Despite admitting to an error in one of this study's tables, Levitt has stated that "the story we put forth in the paper is not materially changed by the coding error." See Steven D. Levitt, "Everything in Freakonomics Is Wrong!,", Nov. 28, 2005)

  21. Paul R. Ehrlich, The Population Bomb, 1968

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  23. The Holy Bible: King James Version (accessed Apr. 1, 2010)

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  27. Priscilla Coleman, and Eileen S. Nelson, EdD, "The Quality of Abortion Decisions and College Students' Reports of Post-Abortion Emotional Sequelae and Abortion Attitudes," Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Apr. 1998

  28. Terry Eastland, "The Forgotten Option," The Weekly Standard, Jan. 29, 2003

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  31. Franklin Foer, "Fetal Viability,", May 25, 1997

  32. James Davison Hunter, Before the Shooting Begins: Searching for Democracy in America's Culture War, 1994

  33. Rick Lowery, "Abortion: What the Bible Says (and Doesn't Say),", Sep. 14, 2012

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  35. Jose Russo and Irma Russo, "Susceptibility of the Mammary Gland to Carcinogenesis. Pregnancy Interruption as a Risk Factor in Tumor Incidence," The American Journal of Pathology, Aug. 1980

  36. Randy Hultgren, "Americans Should Not Have to Pay for Abortions through Obamacare,", Jan. 21, 2014

  37. Christopher L. Foote and Christopher F. Goetz, "The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime: Comment," Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Jan. 31, 2008

  38. Megan McArdle, "Department of Awful Statistics,", Oct. 16, 2007

  39. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, "Induced Abortion,", Nov. 2008

  40. Karen Pazol, Sonya B. Gambl, et al., "Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2006," CDC - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Nov. 27, 2009

  41. Suzanne M. Alford, "Is Self-Abortion a Fundamental Right?," Duke Law Journal, Mar. 2003

  42. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, "Induced Abortion,", Nov. 2008

  43. Lawrence B. Finer and Stanley K. Henshaw, "Abortion Incidence and Services in the United States in 2000," Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Jan/Feb. 2003

  44. Willy Pedersen, "Abortion and Depression: A Population-based Longitudinal Study of Young Women," Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, June 2008

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  46. Wendy Koch, "USA Faces Critical Adoption Shortage,", Jan. 10, 2013

  47. Monica Davey, "Nebraska Law Sets Limits on Abortion," New York Times, Apr. 13, 2010

  48. James C. McKinley, Jr., "Strict Abortion Measures Enacted in Oklahoma," New York Times, Apr. 27, 2010

  49. Roe v. Wade,US Supreme Court,, Jan. 22, 1973

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  51. The US Declaration of Independence,, July 4, 1776

  52. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), "Abortion Surveillance United States, 2006" , Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR),, Nov. 27, 2009

  53. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), "Who Adopts? Characteristics of Women and Men Who Have Adopted Children" , NCHS Data Brief,, Jan. 2009

  54. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as Amended,, Sep. 25, 2008

  55. Democratic National Committee, "Moving America Forward: 2012 Democratic National Platform" ,, 2012

  56. Republican National Committee, "We Believe in America: 2012 Republican Platform" (2.5 MB) ,, 2012

  57. Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey,US Supreme Court,, June 29, 1992

  58. Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003,, Nov. 5, 2003

  59. Gonzales, Attorney General v. Carhart et al./Gonzales, Attorney General v. Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., et al., US Supreme Court,, Apr. 18, 2007

  60. "Policy Statement of the United States of America at the United Nations International Conference on Population (Second Session)" ,, Aug. 16-13, 1984

  61. Barack Obama, JD, "Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and] the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development" ,, Jan. 23, 2009

  62. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2.2 MB) ,, Mar. 23, 2010

  63. Barack Obama, JD, "Executive Order: Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act" ,, Mar. 24, 2010

  64. Nathan Koppel, "Arizona Criminalizes Certain Abortions,", Mar. 30, 2011

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  67. Susan Donaldson James, "Down Syndrome Births Are Down in U.S.,", Nov. 2, 2009

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  69. Anne Nordal Broen et al., "The Course of Mental Health after Miscarriage and Induced Abortion: A Longitudinal, Five-Year Follow-up Study," BMC (BioMed Central) Medicine, Dec. 12, 2005

  70. Aaron Sharockman, "Rep. Richard Corcoran Says 90 Percent of Prenatal Down Syndrome Cases Result in Abortion,", Apr. 28, 2011

  71. A.S. Bhadoria et al., Reproductive Factors and Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Tertiary Care Hospital of North India," Indian Journal of Cancer, Oct.-Dec. 2013

  72. Yubei Huang et al., "A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Induced Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk Among Chinese Females," Cancer Causes & Control, Feb. 2014

  73. Annalee Newitz, "What Happens to Women Denied Abortions? This Is the First Scientific Study to Find Out,", Nov. 13, 2012

  74. Guttmacher Institute, "In Brief: Fact Sheet: Facts on Induced Abortion Worldwide,", Jan. 2012

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  76. Child Welfare Information Gateway, US Department of Health and Human Services, "Persons Seeking to Adopt,", Feb. 2011

  77. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, "Summary of Vital Statistics 2012: The City of New York: Pregnancy Outcomes,", Feb. 2014

  78. Daniel Martin, "Abortion Should Not Be Used as a Contraceptive, Says Lord Steel, Father of 1967 Act That Legalised the Practice,", June 18, 2013

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  80. Lydia Saad, "Americans Misjudge U.S. Abortion Views,", May 15, 2013

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  84. Meghan Ashford-Grooms, "Rick Perry Says There Have Been 50 Million Abortions Since Roe,", Feb. 1, 2011

  85. Sandhya Somashekhar, "Study: Abortion Rate at Lowest Point Since 1973,", Feb. 2, 2014

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  87. Malcolm Potts et al., Abortion, 1977

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  89. National Abortion Federation, "History of Abortion," (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)

  90. Chicago Tribune, "Timeline of Abortion Laws and Events,", 2014

  91. Kate Manning, "Leeches, Lye and Spanish Fly,", Jan. 21, 2013

  92. Dorothy E. McBride, Abortion in the United States: A Reference Handbook, 2008

  93. Justin Dyer, "Fictional Abortion History,", Dec. 24, 2012

  94. Pew Research Center, "Roe v. Wade at 40: Most Oppose Overturning Abortion Decision,", Jan. 16, 2013

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  103. Rachel Benson Gold and Elizabeth Nash, "Troubling Trend: More States Hostile to Abortion Rights as Middle Ground Shrinks," Guttmacher Policy Review, Winter 2012

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  110. Michael Muskal, "Pact Reached to Keep North Dakota's Only Abortion Clinic Open,", Mar. 14, 2014

  111. Irin Carmon, "Appeals Court Upholds Law That Closed Texas Abortion Clinics,", Mar. 28, 2014

  112. Manny Fernandez, "In Texas, a Senator’s Stand Catches the Spotlight,", June 26, 2013

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  154. Steve Benen, "Scalia Rejects Privacy Rights,", Oct. 31, 2013

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  179. Elizabeth Nash, et al., "Policy Trends in the States: First Quarter 2018,", Apr. 17, 2018

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  181. Sarah Fowler, "Judge Blocks Mississippi's 15-Week Abortion Ban from Going into Effect,", Mar. 20, 218

  182. Associated Press, "Iowa Judge Agrees to Halt Fetal Heartbeat Abortion Law,", June 1, 2018

  183. Jennifer Haberkorn, "North Dakota's Six-Week Abortion Ban Struck,", July 22, 2015

  184. Adam Liptak, "Supreme Court Allows Arkansas Abortion Restrictions to Stand,", May 29, 2018

  185. Nina Totenberg, "Supreme Court Declines to Hear Challenge to Arkansas Abortion Law,", May 29, 2018

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